Data Center Power System

mbrooke

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United States
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*
Why do data centers replicate their power systems by 2, 3 or even 4 times? But not hospitals, military bases, pharmaceuticals, waste water ect?


I'd imagine its not that expensive because only the servers transfer over to the other branch where as none IT loads are just allowed to go down.
 

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hbiss

EC, Westchester, New York NEC: 2014
Location
Hawthorne, New York NEC: 2014
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EC
Because IT "professionals" think their stuff is super important. And corporate thinks they are omnipotent beings so they go along with whatever they want. :blink:

-Hal
 

ron

Senior Member
The diagram you showed is multiple systems for redundancy and is a more efficient way than just a simple duplication.
3 to make 2 OR 4 to make 3, allow for a virtual "A" system and a "B" system to provide redundant power to the IT equipment and be loaded more than 50% awaiting failover scenarios like a traditional 2N system would have.
IT servers have the ability to take in dual input sources and most other load types for hospitals, military bases, pharmaceuticals, waste water would need as ATS or MTS to do that. We use an ATS or MTS for HVAC in the data center.
 

charlie b

Moderator
Staff member
Location
Seattle, WA
Occupation
Electrical Engineer
The cost of the extra equipment is far lower than the loss of income that would result from an even short loss of power to the building.
 

mbrooke

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United States
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The diagram you showed is multiple systems for redundancy and is a more efficient way than just a simple duplication.
3 to make 2 OR 4 to make 3, allow for a virtual "A" system and a "B" system to provide redundant power to the IT equipment and be loaded more than 50% awaiting failover scenarios like a traditional 2N system would have.
IT servers have the ability to take in dual input sources and most other load types for hospitals, military bases, pharmaceuticals, waste water would need as ATS or MTS to do that. We use an ATS or MTS for HVAC in the data center.

Now you've peaked my curiosity. How does this work vs simple duplication?
 

mbrooke

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United States
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In most cases, when the computer center goes down, so does the entire corporation, all remote locations, and roving salesmen with laptops. All manufacturing sites may be able to complete what they're working on. Maybe. Shipping goes down; no sales get completed. No new sales get entered! The cost of losing the data center is massive!
Good one, true :)

Here is a two on two system: 2 gens, 2 ATS, a tie between each switch-gear after the ATS and multiple ATSs for loads like pumps, chillers, UPS ect. Don't know why but very elegant:
 

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ron

Senior Member
Now you've peaked my curiosity. How does this work vs simple duplication?
I’m working from my phone so I don’t have the diagrams handy that I use when working with clients, but this white paper goes over how the installed amount of UPS infrastructure gets to be a lower % closer to the actual critical load starting from 2x equipment (2N or 200%) and working on to 3 to make 2, then 4 to make 3 and on.
their language and diagrams just take a little thought to make sense, but it is accurate

https://w3.siemens.com/powerdistribu...Redundancy.pdf
 

mbrooke

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United States
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I’m working from my phone so I don’t have the diagrams handy that I use when working with clients, but this white paper goes over how the installed amount of UPS infrastructure gets to be a lower % closer to the actual critical load starting from 2x equipment (2N or 200%) and working on to 3 to make 2, then 4 to make 3 and on.
their language and diagrams just take a little thought to make sense, but it is accurate

https://w3.siemens.com/powerdistribu...Redundancy.pdf
When you have time, can you link or send me the client diagrams? I'd be really interested :)
 

Todd0x1

Senior Member
Location
CA
Why do data centers replicate their power systems by 2, 3 or even 4 times?
well the diagram does show pg&e as the utility source.....


I would hazard a guess that it is because the amount of money on the line, I cant really think of anywhere but telecom where five 9's is the norm. As a very simple example, google in its entirety brings in about $250k per minute 24/7/365. They will spend whatever it takes to keep the power on. Besides loss of utility power, have to consider everything that could happen inside the building. Need to be able to loose one of pretty much any piece of equipment and still have everything on. Used to work in a DC that had a ATS explode during a monthly test simulating utility outage, only way we knew was the burn marks on the floor the next morning, nothing went down.


Hospitals can evacuate. Sewage can be let out in the ocean. Pharmaceutical companies can wait until the power comes back on (although I suppose the downtime would also impact the production rate of bad commercials with too many string lights).


Besides the generators and such, the amount of onsite diesel some of these places have onsite is insane. I know of one with only a few gensets that has 90,000 gallons.
 

petersonra

Senior Member
Location
Northern illinois
Occupation
engineer
A lot of data centers have crazy specs for up time. And the financial penalties for not meeting the up time requirements can be substantial.

Most companies are heavily dependent on their computer systems and if they go down the whole company can go into a standstill until they come back up. For large companies even a few minutes of downtime can amount to millions of dollars.
 

Todd0x1

Senior Member
Location
CA
How do they refill that 90,000 gallon farm? How much does it cost?
Same way they fill a gas station, tanker trucks. Cost = however much red diesel is going for that day. I would doubt those tanks have ever really been drawn down.
 

mbrooke

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United States
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Same way they fill a gas station, tanker trucks. Cost = however much red diesel is going for that day. I would doubt those tanks have ever really been drawn down.
How do they prevent the fuel from going bad? Is it only 1 year before it breaks down?
 
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