- Placerville, CA, USA
- Retired PV System Designer
I think the distinction is somewhat arbitrary but depends upon bandgap value.
No bandgap means a conductor. Bandgap of 1eV or so means semiconductor, 9eV or more means insulator. Bandgap of 2-4 eV is a 'wide bandgap' semiconductor.
If they are polarized ions, the will move in an electric field, right?I'd love to learn more about this. I always understood this disassociation to be an equilibrium process, meaning that if you had H2O present then you would have the ions present and that Hydrogen was always jumping around so that you could never be sure which was H2O and which was the ions.
If they are polarized ions, the will move in an electric field, right?
I'm a tad weak on quantum physics, but then most garden variety sparks such as i are rarely exposed to it Jon
such a shame too , we'd really have a handle on the rationale of our trade ....
The slit experiment is the classic illustration of the wave nature of light. The fact that the solar wind exerts enough pressure to allow the use of solar sails reveals light's particle nature.Quantum Mechanics (or quantum physics)-- as regards application to the above mentioned topic is like driving a thumb tack using a 16-pound sledge hammer.
Even notable theoretical physicists like Feynman was skeptical on how it could apply to the accepted theories pioneered by Newtonian Law of Motion.
In the end however, he capitulated that he doesn’t know much about Quantum Mechanics (also called quantum physics)
Albert Einstein was once quoted saying--that his theory of relativity as represented in his equation:
E=MC squared would run in conflict with this “modern” branch of Theoretical Physics.
Einstein posits that if energy is released in one sudden burst --in one intentional event--as in the atom bomb (s) that claimed almost 75,000 souls—was a one-time event the gives way it’s full potential.
Quantum mechanics--which studies are carried out by the Max Planck Institute of Advanced Studies of Modern Physics-- are an ongoing research. So it’s hard to say that “it’s a done deal”.
I visited one institute of these studies in Berlin about three years ago. Most institutes are in Germany. . . but there is one in Jupiter, Florida and I believe another one is in the Netherlands.
I have to admit that for anyone (including myself) to fully understand Quantum Mechanics --is to fully understand the traditional “orbital” energy--inherent in the potential of atoms/electrons--that orbit a nucleus-- as opposed to Quantum Mechanics’ position that claims--that energy is released in “waves” --something in the form of wave forms.
The energy carried in waves is called quanta.
To know the difference between the two (Classical Physics and Quantum Physics) is essential to even get started.
You are describing the units in a somewhat confusing (or incorrect) way.You measure the conductivity of water. One standard is 1/micro ohms per cm (called umhos). The other is microsiemens. Consider them the same for now.
A handy way to remember conductivity to resistivity is one umhos/cm = 1,000,000 ohms/cm = 10,000 ohms/m.
Tap water varies a good bit depending on source. I'd say maybe 50 - 500 umhos. Tap water in my area is around 150-200 umhos.
'Ground state' is the energy level of an atom, molecule, or larger assemblage when it is at lowest energy; in this case talking about electrons in orbitals.
Think about ordinary hydrogen. 1 electron, 1 proton. Apply enough energy and you can rip that electron completely away from the proton. The amount of energy needed to rip that electron away depends on how much energy it had to start with. But there is a lowest energy orbital that the electron can be in, called the ground state.
As more protons and electrons are added to an atom, the different possible orbitals get filled up in order of lowest energy to highest. In general the electron in the highest energy state is the one available to move around. (Glossing over lots of details that I don't fully understand. You too can be a quantum mechanic!)
In a dense material like a solid (as opposed to a gas) the orbitals of the individual atoms blend together, and you should really think in terms of electron energy bands.
In a metal, the 'highest occupied energy band' is only partially filled. This means that only a smidge of energy is needed for an electron to move into a free state and move around.
In an insulator, the 'highest occupied energy band' is completely filled. For an electron to move around a large amount of energy needs to be added to rip it from the occupied band into an energy band where it can move around. Apply enough energy (say in the form of an intense electric field, or bombard things with high energy particles) and yes, you will get current flow. I don't know if porcelain will ever 'look like copper', because the energy needed for getting electrons to flow might be so much that you've vaporized the material and now have current flowing through an arc, but apply enough energy and you will have conduction.
In a semiconductor the 'highest occupied energy band' is completely filled, but an un-occupied band is available that isn't much higher in energy. This means that things like the random thermal energy of the electrons in the material is enough for some of them to be in an unoccupied band where they can move.
In a metal 'open' electron states are available right next to occupied electrons states, so the electrons are really really free to move.
In a semiconductor, there are well defined energy ba
So wait a minute--- it takes energy to move energy? Where does the energy come from that holds electrons in orbit? Is this why we can't get absolute zero?
It takes energy to promote electrons to the conduction band in a semiconductor. In semiconductors the conductivity goes down as they get colder.
Where the energy of electrons in their orbitals comes from is well above my pay grade Protons attract electrons, so if you had a separated proton and electron they would pull together, but why they attract in the first place I cannot answer.
The inability to get absolute zero is a different issue; essentially having to do with how heat pumps work. It would take infinite energy to pump heat away from absolute zero, and I am not good enough with thermodynamics to explain it
??Thanks- to fascinating.
Anyone know why protons attract electrons? And why neutrons do nothing in essence? Does matter exist or is it just numbers trying to solve to zero?
Coulomb's Law explains the how, there is no good explanantion for why. Most often observations are explained in terns of how, and usually accompanied by some physics proven with mathematical equations. In general, many things are "it just is". Like why does every galaxy have a blackhole in it? Dunno, it just is.
The slit experiment is the classic illustration of the wave nature of light. The fact that the solar wind exerts enough pressure to allow the use of solar sails reveals light's particle nature.