IMO there is a GAP between the #10 on T310.16 and the 50A "min" OCP.If you mean maximum breaker 50a, then you're correct: #10 wire and up to a 50a breaker.
When MCA and MOP are listed, you use them, and do no math.
Even in the 90 column the ampacity is 40A, the next common size is 45A per 240.6 (if you can find one :roll, but the conductor needs to be protected at the rating of the OCP per 240.4(B). (Which apparently is a MIN OF 50...)
Additionaly #10 is a "small conductor" listed in 240.4(D)
In any rate - next size #8... (Right?)
At that point you are no longer sizing the OCP and conductors for the load - but sizing the conductors for the OCP....
(For ease of looking it up I pulled this out of the '02 code on my drive in case anything changed???)